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By Gregorio Millán Barbany
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10 R A W MATERIALS Fig. —Distribution of charges on a colloidal particle of clay. I. Units, ζ = od kko , } Although there is little doubt that the colloidal particle functions as a condenser, it will be clear that the distance d has no precise geometrical meaning but is regarded as an "equivalent distance". In addition to ions, molecules of water, which act as electrical dipoles, are also attracted to the charged particle, and form a layer or sheath round it; this layer of firmly-held water molecules is known as the lyosphere*.
Lyosphere is a general term applicable to all liquids; where water only is involved, the term hydrosphere is sometimes used. 11 Cation Exchange It was pointed out earlier that the "balancing cations" 2 + associated with the negatively-charged particles consist of C a , 2 + + + M g , N a and K ions, but these ions are readily replaced by or exchanged for others, the reaction being very rapid. For example, if a natural clay is placed in a strong solution of ammonium chloride, NH4CI, ammonium ions, N H 4 + , tend to replace the existing ions in the outer layer, and the original balancing ions are released into solution as chlorides.
The principal clay-mineral of ball clays is of the kaolin type, and closely resembles kaolinite but is less well-crystallized, and its empirical formula departs slightly from the ideal, approximating to: (Ca0 0F 5 e ^ t M g 0 1A l 0 ) S i 2 0 5 ( O H ) 4 The Al is slightly less than 2 atoms per unit formula, small proportions of other ions taking its place. In addition to the clay mineral, mica, quartz, miscellaneous oxides and carbonaceous matter are present. Ball clays are variously described as "blue", "black" or "ivory", according to their colour: the blueness or blackness is caused by the presence of much organic matter whereas ivory clays owe their colour to the presence of iron oxide.
Aerothermochemistry by Gregorio Millán Barbany