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I. Histoire économique et sociale de l’Empire romain, Robert Laffont, coll. Paris: ‘Bouquins’, 1988. A. History of Economic Analysis, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1963. TAVENEAUX, R. Jansénisme et prêt à intérêt, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, 1977. VEYNE, P. ‘The Roman Empire’ in Aries, P. A History of Private Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987. 2 Almsgiving versus Usury BIBLICAL BANS The Hebrews were the first people to condemn interest-bearing loans. The Old Testament forbids it in three different places: Exodus XXII: If you should lend money to one of my people, to the afflicted among you, you must not become like a usurer to him.

The Christian spirit, although Christianity was now the official religion of the powerful, was still in a minority position. Progressively, the Christian community was welded together by the very powerful notion of religious solidarity. By giving alms and the opportunity of work to the less fortunate members of their community, the Christians, but also the Jews, were able to protect their vulnerable fellow believers from ungodly employers and money lenders. The practice of almsgiving to the poor became the principal sign of solidarity between believers.

The Pope’s personal envoy, Saint Boniface, by pouring the holy oil on the head of Pépin le Bref, transformed the Carolingians into God’s chosen monarchs at the same time as he made them the people’s favourites. The ceremony of crowning the king dates from Biblical times, and bestowed and invested the Carolingians with the divine right of kings. When Pope Leo III raised Charlemagne to the status of Holy Roman Emperor, he enabled him to usurp simultaneously the crown of the Merovingians and the august powers which the ‘Roman Emperors’ of Byzantium had not ceased to wield until the middle of the eighth century.

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Aichi D3A (Val), Yokosuka D4Y (Judy)

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