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By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)
Contents: creation to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened strength and Chemical Equilibrium recommendations response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition
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ACp„„ =-16·95-5·27χ10- 3 Γ+17·45χ10 5 Γ- 2 . ·. dT 31 1373 = J (-16-95-5-27xlO- s r+1745xl0 5 r- 2 )dr 1180 1180 1373 η = [ -16·95Γ-2·64χ10- ί Γ»-17·45χ10 δ Γ- 1 ] 1180 = [- 29,510]- [- 25,160] = -4350J. 21), 693 1180 298 693 Μί1373-ΔΗ298 = j ACpj. dr+L,,Zn+ J AC pJI . dr, 1180 and therefore Δ^ 1373 -(+237,700)=(-1800)+(+7280)+(-4460) +(+114,200)+(-4350) and Δ#1373 = 237,700+110,900 = +348,600 J. Thus, at 1100°C, the reaction is even more endothermic than at 2S°C, and the major factor in raising the heat of reaction to this value is the latent heat of evaporation of zinc, +114,200 J/mol.
The commercial importance of the knowledge that this reaction is so strongly endothermic is that heat supply and 32 AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL METALLURGY conservation in the reduction of zinc oxide sinter by carbon — whether in horizontal retorts, vertical retorts or the blast furnace-are of great importance, and it was this factor combined with the more important problem of the difficulty of condensation of the zinc vapour as it left the smelting unit which delayed the successful commercial introduction of the comparatively large unit of the blast furnace until 1950.
Thus, 3Fe 2 0 3s + COG = 2Fe 3 0 4s + C02G, AH = -46-7 kJ S signifies the solid, L the liquid, and G the gaseous states; where different allotropie modifications exist—as in the case of α-, γ- and δ-iron—these may also be indicated where necessary. INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS 21 Heat of Formation of a Compound: the change in enthalpy when 1 mole of the compound is formed from its constituent elements in their stable forms at 25°C and 1 atm pressure. For example, the heat of formation of lead sulphide, Pbs + iS 2s = PbSs, Δ//298 = |—941 kJ; the subscript 298 refers to the temperature of the measurement, 298°K.
An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)