Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes - download pdf or read online
By Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (auth.), Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (eds.)
It is universally famous that the top of the present and the start of the subsequent century should be characterised by way of a thorough swap within the latest developments within the financial improvement of all international locations and a transition to new ideas of monetary administration at the foundation of a source and effort conservation coverage. therefore there's an pressing necessity to check equipment, technical aids and financial effects of this transformation, and especially, to figure out the potential quantities of power assets that could be conserved (energy "reserves") in several spheres of the nationwide economic system. An elevated curiosity in the direction of strength conservation in undefined, one of many greatest strength shoppers, is kind of ordinary and is manifested by way of the massive num ber of courses in this subject. however the majority of guides are dedicated to the answer of narrowly outlined difficulties, selection of power reserves in particular methods and vegetation, potency estimation of person strength conserva tion measures, and so on. despite the fact that, it can be crucial to boost a basic methodological method of the answer of such difficulties and create a systematic and methodical base for understanding an power conservation coverage. Such an attempt is made during this ebook, that's excited about tools for learning power use potency in technological procedures and estimation of the theoretical and real power reserves in a given strategy, know-how, or business area at the foundation in their entire power balances.
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Extra resources for Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes
A large discrepancy amounting to 1520 % of the total energy input appears. This can be partially explained by the following. It is difficult and sometimes impossible to determine the enthalpies of all the substances produced in metallurgical and chemical processes, as the reference books have no values of L1H for slags, mattes and similar materials whose composition may be very complex or unknown. In addition the enthalpies of formation of these substances are usually considerably higher than the values of L1H of the initial fuel, raw material, fluxes, etc.
4) where (L1H~)aq and (L1G~)aq are the enthalpy and free enthalpy (the Gibbs energy) of formation of a substance in aqueous solution, respectively. 3,4) allow one to determine the values of the chemical energy and exergy of an element when these values are known for all the other elements of the considered substance. g. [43, 126, 128], can also be used to calculate the chemical energy and exergy of substances. These potentials are determined experimentally with respect to some reference standard, usually a hydrogen electrode under standard conditions.
H2. , the standard electrode potential of this reaction, is set equal to zero. In our technique, however, the chemical energy and exergy of water and oxygen, rather than hydrogen potentials, are taken as the zero level. ; H20. 34 kJ/mole. 23 V , which is the resulting potential of a hydrogen electrode. , e~2 =- (LlG~20) and i~2 =- (LlG~20) . tn The essence of the procedure of changing the reference level is illustrated Fig. 1. It shows the potentials of some metals relative to the zero (standard) potential of reaction of hydrogen ion formation.
Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes by Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (auth.), Professor Dr. Vladimir S. Stepanov (eds.)